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书面表达写错句子的10种类型(上)
文章作者:HMwritin…    文章来源:高考英语网    点击数:   更新时间:2015-01-12
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书面表达写错句子的10种类型(上)

 

一、母语干扰型

许多同学在进行英语写作时,很容易受汉语的影响而写错句子,即写出所谓的Chinlish。这是最常见的错误之一。如:

1. 事实上,这个人年纪很轻。

误:In fact, the man’s age is very young.

正:In fact, the man is very young.

析:中国人常说“年纪轻”,但英语中的 young 本身就有“年纪轻”的意思,它习惯上不再与age 搭配使用。类似地,汉语说“他年纪很大”,不能译成 His age is very old,而应是 He is very old.

2. 我的工作太忙,我不能来。

误:My work is too busy and I can’t come.

正:I’m too busy and I can’t come.

析:汉语说“工作忙”,实际上是指“人忙”。类似地,要表达汉语中的“我的事情很忙”,英语只需说 I’m busy 就够了,而不能说成 My things are busy.

3. 这个老太太的左眼瞎了。

误:The old woman’s left eye is blind.

正:The old woman is blind in the left eye.

析:汉语中说“眼瞎”,而按英语习惯却要说“人瞎”,瞎在哪儿? 瞎在“眼睛”,所以英语中要表达类似意思总是用“人”作主语,而用介词短语引出“瞎”的位置。同样地,要表示“他的左腿是跛的”,不能说成 His left leg is lame, 而应说成 He is lame in his left leg.

4. 他身体很好,很少生病。

误:His body is good / healthy, and seldom falls ill.

正:He’s healthy, and seldom falls ill.

析:汉语说“身体好”,其实是指某人的健康处于一种良好的状态,而绝不是指他的躯体是完好的。

5. 我讨厌周末拥挤的交通。

误:I hate the crowded traffic on weekends.

正:I hate the busy / heavy traffic on weekends.

析:汉语可说“拥挤的交通、街道、房间、商店等”,而英语中虽然可说 crowded streets / rooms, shops等,但习惯上不说 crowded traffic

6. 汤姆打了鲍勃的脸。

误:Tom hit Bob’s face.

正:Tom hit Bob in the face.

析:汉语中可以说“打某人的脸”,而英语中必须先说“打某人”再+介词+the+身体的某个部位。又如“打某人的鼻子”译为hit sb. on the nose.“抓住某人的胳膊”译为catch sb. by the arm.

二、成分残缺型

许多同学在进行英语写作时,通常不考虑句子的完整性而写出一些成分残缺的句子。如:

1. 他的笔头英语不错,但口语不行。

误:His written English is good, but not good at spoken English.

正:His written English is good, but his spoken English is not good.

正:He is good at written English, but not good at spoken English.

析:误句中 but 后的句子缺适当的主语,因为 good at spoken English 的主语应是“他”,而不是 his written English

2. 英语很有趣,我的确很喜欢。

误:English is very interesting, and I really like very much.

正:English is very interesting, and I really like it very much.

析:like 是及物动词,其后通常应有宾语。

3. 别怕,我们会帮你的。

误:Don’t afraid; we’ll help you.

正:Don’t be afraid; we’ll help you.

析:误句谓语不完整,因为 afraid 是形容词,不是动词,不能单独作谓语,必须和连系动词一起构成谓语。当然,若说成 Don’t fear,则完全可以。

4.住在我隔壁的李明是个医生。

误:Li Ming, lives next to me, is a doctor.

正:Li Ming, who lives next to me, is a doctor.

正:Li Ming, living next to me, is a doctor.

析:误句中定语成分不完整。定语从句是一个完整的句子,当先行词指人且关系代词在从句中作主语时要用thatwho。也可用现在分词短语作后置定语。

5. 你介意我问你一个问题吗?

误:Do you mind I ask you a question?

正:Do you mind if I ask you a question?

正:Do you mind my asking you a question?

析:误句中的主句和从句之间缺少连接词。也可以用动名词短语作mind的宾语。

6. 他考试及格了使他妈妈很高兴。

误:He passed the exam made his mother very happy.

正:That he passed the exam made his mother very happy.

正:He passed the exam, which made his mother very happy.

析:误句中的主语应该是由主语从句来承担的。that引导主语从句,不做成分,无实际意义,但不能省略。也可以用非限定性定语从句。

 

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三、想当然型

有的同学在写作时,常将一些似是而非的东西想当然乱用,不注意语言的准确性和地道性。如:

1. 我说两个小时的时候,那是包括了吃饭的时间。

误:When I say two hours, which includes the time for eating.

正:When I say two hours, that includes the time for eating.

析:许多同学往往想当然地认为在逗号后面总是用 which 引导定语从句,而不用 that。其实,本句中的 that includes the time for eating 不是定语从句,而是主句(that 用作主句主语),其前的 when I say two hours 状语从句

2. 你应该更注意练习你的英语口语。

误:You should pay more attention to practise your spoken English.

正:You should pay more attention to practising your spoken English.

析:有的同学们认为to后总是接动词原形,构成不定式。其实,此句中的to不是不定式符号,而是介词,所以其后的动词要用原形

3. 几年前,对大多数中国人来说,在家里有一台电脑的想法还是不大现实的。

误:Just a few years ago, the idea to have a computer in one's home seemed very difficult for most Chinese.

正:Just a few years ago, the idea of having a computer in one's home seemed very difficult for most Chinese.

析:许多同学认为表示做某事就用动词不定式,这要根据具体情况来定。idea后面要用of短语说明idea的内容。

4. 尽管他只有十六岁,但是他已经学会用英语和外国人交谈了。

误:Although he is a boy of sixteen, but he has learned to talk with the foreigners in English.

正:Although he is a boy of sixteen, he has learned to talk with the foreigners in English.

正:He is a boy of sixteen, but he has learned to talk with the foreigners in English.

析:许多同学往往认为“虽然…但是”是关联词组。但although是从属连词,而but为并列连词,故不能同时出现在同一句中。类似的还有becauseso,也不能连用。

5. 他迟到的原因是因为他没赶上早班车。

误:The reason why he was late is because he didn’t catch the early bus.

正:The reason why he was late is that he didn’t catch the early bus.

析:许多同学认为“因为”表原因就用because,但在此句The reason whyis thatthat引导表语从句,无实际意义。

6. 他说他将尽最大努力学好英语。

误:He said he would do what he could learn English well.

正:He said he would do what he could to learn English well.

正:He said he would do / try his best to learn English well.

析:情态动词后只能跟动词原形。于是有的同学就出现了误句。实际上,此句中“学好英语”是“尽最大努力”的目的状语,应该用不定式。

四、思维定势型

有的同学不能灵活地运用所学知识进行表达,而是凭印象观念,结果写错句子。

1. 我永远不会忘记我们一起度过的日子。

误:I’ll never forget the days when we spent together.

正:I’ll never forget the days which / that we spent together.

析:有的同学记住了定语从句的规则,当先行词指时间时,关系词用when,而没用考虑它在定语从句中做什么成分。此句中的spent及物动词,应由whichthat替代the days作它的宾语。

2. 炎日下没有比一杯冷饮更让人愉悦的了。

误:Few pleasures can equal those of a cool drink on a hot day.

正:Few pleasures can equal that of a cool drink on a hot day.

析:有的同学只知道用that指代前面的单数或不可数名词,用those指代复数名词。殊不知,此句中Few pleasuresa cool drink这种乐趣相比,因此应该看成单数概念。

3. 他从上一星期二一直病着。

误:He has been ill from last Tuesday.

正:He has been ill since last Tuesday.

析:有的同学认为“从…”译为from, 如:从7点到9from7 to 9;从家到学校from home to school. 但在现在完成式中却用since.

4. 那个丢失的孩子最后一次被看见在河边玩。

误:The missing boy was last seen to play near the river.

正:The missing boy was last seen playing near the river.

析:有的同学只记得:在主动语态中感官动词后面不带to,而变为被动语态时则必须带to. 因此没有具体分析,此句是考查感官动词后接现在分词表示动态情景。“看见某人正在做某事”译为see sb. doing sth.,变为被动语态sb. is seen doing sth.

5. 他很少上学迟到,如果有的话,也很少。

误:He is seldom, if any , late for school.

正:He is seldom, if ever, late for school.

析:有的同学知道any用于if引导的条件状语从句中,但此句是一个省略句,完整的句子为He is seldom, if he has ever been , late for school. if ever表示如果曾经迟到过的话。

6. 他把雨伞忘在火车上了。

误:He has forgot his umbrella on the train.

正:He has left his umbrella on the train.

析:“遗忘”译为forget leave.但二者是由区别的:leave 多于表示场所的地点状语连用,而forget 通常不与表场所的地点状语连用。外出时把东西忘记在家里的时候通常用forget. 如:“我忘了带驾驶证”译为I’ve forgot the driver’s license.

 

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五、结构误配型

有的同学在写作时,常常把一些固定词组、习惯用语和固定句型错误搭配,结果写出来的句子让人看不懂。

1. 你愿意帮我忙吗?

误:Will you give me a favour?

正:Will you do me a favour?

析:“帮某人一个忙”、“给某人恩惠”应是do sb. a favour.

2. 在回家的路上,史密斯夫人的钱包被抢了。

误:Mrs. Smith’s wallet was robbed from her on her way home.

正:Mrs. Smith’s wallet was stolen from her on her way home.

正:Mrs. Smith’s wallet was robbed of her on her way home.

析:“抢某人某物”译为steal +某物+from+某人或场所,或rob+人或场所+of +某物。

3. 你认为工程师的演讲怎么样?

误:How do you think of the speech made by the engineer?

正:What do you think of the speech made by the engineer?

析:本句的错误在于有同学对what think of的结构概念模糊加上母语的干扰而造成的。What在这一结构中作think的宾语。what do you think of…还可以说How do you like? How在句子中是疑问副词,作状语。

4. 这个问题很难懂。

误:The question is hard to be understood.

正:The question is hard to understand.

析:在“主语+be+形容词+不定式”的句式结构中,主语是不定式的逻辑宾语,不定式用主动形式表示被动意义。又如:The man is hard to work with.其中,与不定式习惯搭配或根据表达需要的介词不能省略。

5. 她有如此好的一位父亲,以致于我们都很羡慕她。

误:She has a so good father that we all admire her.(www.yygrammar.com)

正:She has so good a father that we all admire her.(www.yywords.com)

正:She has such a good father that we all admire her.(www.nmet168.com)

析:so是副词,用来修饰形容词或副词,常用于so+ adj. / adv.+ that…句型中,表示“如此…以致于”。在单数可数名词前可用so+ adj.+ a+名词+that…句型,相当于such +a +adj. + 单数名词+ that结构。

6. 他可不是那种先想到自己后想到别人的人。

误:It’s not like him of thinking of himself before thinking of others.

正:It’s not like him to think of himself before thinking of others.

析:表示“某人(恰恰)就是…这个样子”,用It’s (just) like sb. to do sth.说明赞成或不满。若用否定式则表示怀疑。

 

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